Friday, June 10, 2011
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Individuals who match this personality disorder type have social deficits, marked by discomfort with and reduced capacity for interpersonal relationships; eccentricities of appearance and behavior, and cognitive and perceptual distortions. They have few close friends or relationships. They are anxious in social situations (even when they have the time to become familiar with the situation), feel like outcasts or outsiders, find it difficult to feel connected to others, and are suspicious of others’ motivations, including their spouse, colleagues, and friends.
Individuals with this type are eccentric, odd, or peculiar in appearance or manner (e.g., grooming, hygiene, posture, and/or eye contact are strange or unusual). Their speech may be vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, impoverished, overly concrete, or stereotyped. Individuals with this type experience a limited or constricted range of emotions, and are inhibited in their expression of emotions. They may appear detached and indifferent to other’s reactions, despite internal distress at being “set apart.”
Odd beliefs influence their behavior, such as beliefs in superstition, clairvoyance, or telepathy. Their perception of reality can become further impaired, often under stress, when reasoning and perceptual processes become odd and idiosyncratic (e.g., they may make seemingly arbitrary inferences, or see hidden messages or special meanings in ordinary events) or quasi-psychotic, with symptoms such as pseudo-hallucinations, sensory illusions, over-valued ideas, mild paranoid ideation, or transient psychotic episodes. Individuals with this personality disorder type are, however, able to “reality test” psychotic-like symptoms and can intellectually acknowledge that they are products of their own minds.
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Individuals who match this personality disorder type are ruled by their need for order, precision, and perfection. Activities are conducted in super-methodical and overly detailed ways. They have intense concerns with time, punctuality, schedules, and rules. Affected individuals exhibit an overdeveloped sense of duty and obligation, and a need to try to complete all tasks thoroughly and meticulously. The need to try to do things perfectly may result in a paralysis of indecision, as the pros and cons of alternatives are weighed, such that important tasks may not ever be completed. Tasks, problems, and people are approached rigidly, and there is limited capacity to adapt to changing demands or circumstances. For the most part, strong emotions – both positive (e.g., love) and negative (e.g., anger) – are not consciously experienced or expressed. At times, however, the individual may show significant insecurity, lack of self confidence, and anxiety subsequent to guilt or shame over real or perceived deficiencies or failures. Additionally, individuals with this type are controlling of others, competitive with them, and critical of them. They are conflicted about authority (e.g., they may feel they must submit to it or rebel against it), prone to get into power struggles either overtly or covertly, and act self-righteous or moralistic. They are unable to appreciate or understand the ideas, emotions, and behaviors of other people.